By DUANE NOLLEN
The Oskaloosa Herald
This past week's artifact from the Nelson Pioneer Farm is glass from the Chicago fire of 1872.
No one ventured a guess as to the identity of the artifact.
Nelson Pioneer Farm Curator Kelly Halbert did some research on the artifact. She wrote: “Glass from the Chicago Fire
This small lump of gray is actually 16 to 20 panes of glass, melted together during the Great Chicago Fire of 1871. The smoky gray color is probably the original color of the glass; we also have a larger piece from the fire that is a bright, sky blue in the museum’s collection. In order for these many layers to fix to each other so the temperature of the fire had to be more than 1400° C.
The great Chicago Fire occurred during the dry, hot autumn of 1871. Since most of the city was built of wood, stacks of firewood were piled between residences for convenience, and many homes had barns out back strewn with dry straw for the animals. Another contributing factor to this fire was strong wind from the south that gusted at about 60 mph.
Late in the evening on October 8, a fire broke out in the barn behind the home of Patrick and Catherine O’Leary. It caught quickly and spread north and east, burning for 2 days until a rain shower put it out. Eventually 100,000 people were homeless and 300 were dead. Damages ran about $200,000, the business district was leveled, the city was completely devastated.
The cause of this fire has never been determined. The most popular theory is that Mrs. O’Leary’s cow kicked over the lantern when she was milking. While this was a plausible explanation, it was false – Mrs. O’Leary had already finished milking the cow and was inside the house with her lantern when the fire started. Chicago Tribune reporter Michael Ahern who originally accused the cow confessed in the 1893 that he made the story up in order to sell more newspapers. Other theories expressed were that a spark from a neighbor’s chimney lit the straw, that a man stealing milk dropped a lantern or that there was a poker game going on behind the shed.
Another interesting theory is that the fire started because of a meteor shower in that area of the continent. There were several other major fires during those same days – one in Wisconsin and two in Michigan – both downwind from those gusting blasts out of the south. It was also reported that a wildfire broke out near Toronto a couple days later.
The Great Chicago Fire resulted in many safety regulations for buildings, improved fire fighting techniques and a new, beautiful city on the banks of Lake Michigan.”
The Oskaloosa Herald and the Nelson Pioneer Farm are teaming up to test your knowledge of historical artifacts.
The Nelson Pioneer Farm has about 15,000 artifacts in its collection spanning in age from the 1840s to the present.
The Herald will take a picture of an artifact and publish it in the Herald section of the Oskaloosa Shopper, The Oskaloosa Herald an the Herald's Web site, www.oskaloosa.com. People can make a guess on what they think the object could be.
People can either email their guess to email@example.com or mail their guess to The Oskaloosa Herald, P.O. Box 530, Oskaloosa, IA 52577. You can vote from Wednesday through Saturday.
The identity of the artifact and the vote breakdown will be announced in each Wednesday's Herald Shopper along with the week's new artifact.